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Ease

In the age of smartphones and smartwatches, healthy living has become a kind of lifestyle. Measuring certain body and health values ​​is already part of everyday life for many people. However, most of them find it difficult to correctly interpret and use the self-measured data.

“Ease” closes this discrepancy between technical potential and user-friendliness. For a long-term healthy lifestyle, it is important to keep an eye on the essential body values. This data is recorded and evaluated through a chat and awareness of one's own health is conveyed playfully. A clear and intuitive interface of the app also makes it pleasant and uncomplicated to use.

For health care to work effectively, it must above all be personal and individual. "Ease" adapts to the routines of the user and acts as a companion and helper. Instead of unmanageable amounts of data, personal forecasts provide a clear picture of one's own health. Besides, "Ease" gives suggestions and suggestions on how the health status can be maintained or even improved over the long term.

FINAL PRESENTATION

1. RESEARCH

Questions for deeper research

What is health?

How can we improve our health?

What’s data can we monitore?

Is it good to know about all these 
data and information?

Who should have access to this?

What’s the effect on our daily behavior?

How can we quantify health data?

Where can we engage as designers?

What are the technical limits?

What is health?

“Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. A resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.”

– by WHO (1948 & 1986)

"Health is the ability of a body to adapt to new threats and infirmities."

– by https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(09)60456-6/fulltext#articleInformation

Physical health

A person who has good physical health is likely to have bodily functions and processes working at their peak.

This is not only due not only to an absence of disease. Regular exercise, balanced nutrition, and adequate rest all contribute to good health. People receive medical treatment to maintain the balance, when necessary.

Physical well-being involves pursuing a healthful lifestyle to decrease the risk of disease. Maintaining physical fitness, for example, can protect and develop the endurance of a person’s breathing and heart function, muscular strength, flexibility, and body composition.

Mental health

According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, mental health refers to a person’s emotional, social, and psychological well-being. Mental health is as important as physical health as part of a full, active lifestyle.

It is harder to define mental health than physical health because many psychological diagnoses depend on an individual’s perception of their experience.

With improvements in testing, however, doctors are now able to identify some physical signs of some types of mental illness in CT scans and genetic tests.

Health as a "whole"

Physical and mental health have strong connections. For example, if a chronic illness affects a person’s ability to complete their regular tasks, it may lead to depression and stress. These feelings could be due to financial problems or mobility issues.

A mental illness, such as depression or anorexia, can affect body weight and overall function.

It is important to approach “health” as a whole, rather than as a series of separate factors. All types of health are linked, and people should aim for overall well-being and balance as the keys to good health.

Source: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150999#types

Preserving health

Factors of good health

The social and economic environment

This may include the financial status of a family or community, as well as the social culture and quality of relationships.

The physical environment

This includes which germs exist in an area, as well as pollution levels.

A person’s characteristics and behaviors

A person’s genetic makeup and lifestyle choices can affect their overall health.

_

Maintain health

The best way to maintain health is to preserve it through a healthful lifestyle rather than waiting until sickness or infirmity to address health problems. People use the name wellness to describe this continuous state of enhanced well-being.

The WHO define wellness as follows:

“Wellness is the optimal state of health of individuals and groups. There are two focal concerns: the realization of the fullest potential of an individual physically, psychologically, socially, spiritually, and economically, and the fulfillment of one’s roles and expectations in the family, community, place of worship, and other settings.”

Steps that can help people attain wellness include:

  • eating a balanced, nutritious diet from as many natural sources as possible
  • engaging in at least 150 minutes of moderate to high-intensity exercise every week, according to the American Heart Association
  • screening for diseases that may present a risk
  • learning to manage stress effectively
  • engaging in activities that provide purpose
  • connecting with and caring for other people
  • maintaining a positive outlook on life
  • defining a value system and putting it into action

Source: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150999#types

Health data

This is basically a list of data, facts and information that provide a current status of a persons health.

  • cardiology / fitness
  • heart rate variability
  • blood / haemogram
  • pre-existing condition
  • body-mass-index
  • body temperature
  • sleep
  • outer experience (complexion, hair, fingernails, tongue, urine … )
  • digestion
  • mood
  • negative influence (drinking, smoking,…)

On the other hand, the government is quantifying general health with the following information and data:

  • life expectancy
  • frequency of doctor's visit
  • physician density
  • bed density (hospitals)

How can measure or quantify health data?

Personal / at home:

  • fitness tracker
  • balancer
  • easy self-tests (complexion, fingernails etc... )

Medical / at the doctor:

  • medical check-up
  • risk assessment
  • medical advise

Scientific / secondary health care:

  • genetic test
  • performance diagnostic
  • nutrition counselling
  • (life) coaching

Self-optimization

“In a consumerist society, we are not meant to buy one pair of jeans and then be satisfied,” Cederström and Spicer write, and the same, they think, is true of self-improvement. We are being sold on the need to upgrade all parts of ourselves, all at once, including parts that we did not previously know needed upgrading. There is a great deal of money to be made by those who diagnose and treat our fears of inadequacy; Cederström and Spicer estimate that the self-improvement industry takes in ten billion dollars a year. […] The good life may have sufficed for Plato and Aristotle, but it is no longer enough. “We are under pressure to show that we know how to lead the perfect life,” Cederström and Spicer write.

(Source: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/01/15/improving-ourselves-to-death )

Self-optimization is a big trend that is not only as positive as it sounds on the first glance. The urge of constantely improving ourselves causes pressure and anxiety. Since we're able to measure success, we can also measure failure. However, a big part of self-optimization is self-tracking as a method to quantify ourselves and our behavior. 

Quantified self 

The Quantified Self is an international community of users and makers of self-tracking tools who share an interest in “self-knowledge through numbers.” If you are tracking for any reason — to answer a health question, achieve a goal, explore an idea, or simply because you are curious — you can find help and support here.

From "quantified self" to "quantified collective"

[…] Im Gewand minimal veränderter Versionen kommen grundlegende Verschiebungen daher – wie etwa bei der Apple Watch Series 5. Sie soll, wie Apple-Chef Tim Cook erklärt, für den Konzern „einen Unterschied ausmachen“, und zeigt entgegen so manch übellauniger Prophetie an, dass die IT-Konzerne mit ihren Smartwatches und anderen sogenannten Wearables auf ganz neue Märkte zielen – und dort schon jetzt eine tragende Rolle spielen.

Vom Selbst zum Kollektiv

Schon im Januar 2019 hatte Tim Cook in einem Interview darüber gesprochen, dass die Antwort etwas mit Gesundheit zu tun haben wird, sollte man sich eines fernen Tages einmal die Frage stellen, was Apples größter Beitrag für die Menschheit gewesen sei. Die signifikante Neuausrichtung, die damals noch schemenhaft blieb, erscheint mit der fünften Generation der Apple Watch klar konturiert. Wurde das Vorgängermodell noch als Tool eines fitteren, „besseren Ichs“ beworben, als exklusives egozentrisches Accessoire, das jeden Schritt oder Pulsschlag misst und mit allerlei Apps und „Taps“ (Vibrationsalarm am Handgelenk) den leistungsbewussten Selftracker reformiert, soll sie nun der kollektiven Selbstsorge dienen. „Make your mark on human health“, lautet der entsprechende Slogan. 

 
Kostenlos kann nun jeder Besitzer, sofern er in den Vereinigten Staaten lebt, seine aufgezeichneten Werte – vom EKG bis zur Laufleistung – höheren Zwecken überantworten, das heißt, über die App „Apple Research“ an medizinischen Studien teilnehmen und sich dank vernetzter Sensorik aus seiner selbstverschuldeten Unverbindlichkeit lösen. Durch die uneigennützige Weitergabe seiner Daten hilft er, so das Versprechen des Unternehmens, neue empirische Einsichten und damit zukunftsweisende Erkenntnisse zu gewinnen. In Kooperation mit Universitäten, diversen Krankenhäusern oder gar der Weltgesundheitsorganisation will Apple zukünftig Bereiche von der Hörgesundheit bis zum weiblichen Zyklus untersuchen. Die „Apple Heart Study“ etwa, an der bereits mehr als 400000 Menschen teilgenommen haben, ist nicht nur eine der größten Studien ihrer Art, sie markiert vielmehr den Beginn einer breit angelegten, datenbasierten Vermessung der Gesundheit. Die Smartwatch wird dabei zur Schnittstelle von Ichs und Wir, soll die individuellen in gemeinschaftliche Kreisläufe überführen, so dass ihr sportives Zahlenspiel auch den Gesellschaftskörper am Laufen hält. Das „quantified self“ wird zum „quantified collective“. Für Apple ist die Botschaft klar: „Humanity says thank you!“

(Source: https://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/debatten/ueberwachung-der-gesundheit-fit-fuer-die-welt-16576711.html )

Problems & pain points of existing solutions

  1. Knowledge does not automatically change behavior
    What are we doing with all this data?
    „The technology, as usual, is far ahead of the user. And until it gets into our heads and convinces us that we MUST change, we probably won’t. This is the saddest part of all the talk about invoking “prevention” to lower healthcare costs. All of that requires participation by the patient. It’s not dictated by the provider, the payer, or least of all by the health IT product manager.“ (https://medium.com/stealthmode-blog/why-remote-monitoring-in-health-care-may-fail-3a0c3228770b)
    _
  2. User / Target group is mostly healthy
    Mostly young, healthy men are using fitness tracker etc. Prevention and tracking tools seem to be unattractive to people with an unhealthy lifestyle. Also, an unhealthy lifestyle is often correlating with a tendency of lower income or lower education – while secondary health care is definitely a luxury treatment. 
    _
  3. Profit and sales-driven market
    It's hard to find to information and guidance that is objective and only focused on health - not on selling products.
    _
  4. Private providers and companies get more control over our behavior
    Wearables etc. become a powerful tool to the industry when people just following advises or behavioral instructions
    _
  5. Accuracy of data
    The quality and accuracy of health data (especially for home devises) needs to be questioned and won't replace professional medical treatment completely.

Potential goals for design challenge

- promote healthy lifestyle

- make health prevention more successful and recognized

- reduce costs for health care

- reduce amount of doctor's visits (save time and stress for patients and relieve the health care system)

Research rseult

2. CONCEPT & PROCESS

User / scenarios

Gesund:

- tracking aus Interesse

- Gesund bleiben

- noch gesunder werden

- Bewusstsein für Körper und Gesundheit

Sport:

- Performance messen

- Performance steigern

- Performance timen

- Krankheiten vorbeugen

CHronisch Krank:

- Krankheit kontrollieren

- Grenzen austesten / Lebensqualität optimieren trotz Krankheit

- Selbstständigerer Umgang

- Krankheit dokumentieren

Risiko Patienten:

- "Überwachung" möglichst permanent -> weniger Risiko

- Beruhigung (durch Risiko kontrolle)

- Bewusstsein für Körper und Gesundheit

- Gesünder leben

- Dokumentation

User journey

Tests & Prototyping

User Tests mit 4 Probanden

- unterschiedliche Antwortsmodalitäten getestet
- Timing & Fragen getestet
- Feedback zur Motivation / Selbstreflexion

Belohnungssystem entwickeln

- App in Levels / Missionen aufbauen -> Variabilität
- Vergleich gefühlte Daten mit gemessenen Daten
- längere Intervalle als Belohnung
- Completion & mastery der eigen Gesundheit
- Team up / Anreiz durch Partner oder Community

Fragen:

???

3. DESIGN

Sketches

Design Prinzipien

  • Unterstützend
  • Anleitend, nicht diktierend
  • Positiv
  • Sicher / privat
  • Gamification

Mood Board

Interface Drafts

4. RESULT & PRESENTATION

Storyboard - Video

Interface

Präsentation Link

5. SOURCES

Fit für die Welt

https://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/debatten/ueberwachung-der-gesundheit-fit-fuer-die-welt-16576711.html

Health care

https://gen.medium.com/americans-dont-really-want-medicare-for-all-they-want-japanese-health-care-e82dcf38b898

Improving ourselves to death

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/01/15/improving-ourselves-to-death

These 11 Startups Are Improving Your Health Care

https://blog.producthunt.com/11-startups-that-are-improving-health-care-7ed47431ec8c

Personal health monitoring will change the world

https://medium.com/enrique-dans/personal-health-monitoring-will-change-the-world-708752bf72eb

Why Remote Monitoring in Health Care May Fail

https://medium.com/stealthmode-blog/why-remote-monitoring-in-health-care-may-fail-3a0c3228770b

"The technology, as usual, is far ahead of the user. And until it gets into our heads and convinces us that we MUST change, we probably won’t. This is the saddest part of all the talk about invoking “prevention” to lower healthcare costs. All of that requires participation by the patient. It’s not dictated by the provider, the payer, or least of all by the health IT product manager."

What is good health?

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150999

We dedicated a year to self-improvement: here’s what it taught us

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jan/02/self-improvement-optimization

The state of the art in health data analytics

https://www.scnsoft.com/blog/health-data-analytics-overview

Fachgruppe

Produkt-Design

Art des Projekts

Studienarbeit im Grundstudium

Zugehöriger Workspace

mobile care

Entstehungszeitraum

Sommersemester 2020